Smart Dynamic Casting (SDC)

Smart Dynamic Casting (SDC) is a novel robotic slip-forming process for efficient prefabrication of standard and non-standard structural elements of concrete without the need for full-size custom formwork. It aims to remove the need of individual made formwork for the construction of complex concrete structures. The process targets the production of structures with variable geometry with a single formwork in a gravity-fed additive manufacturing process, made possible through control of material hardening, which allows shaping of the material through process control and automation.

Main Collaborators: Ena Lloret-Fritschi, Anna Szabó, Fabio Scotto, Lex Reiter

Extended Collaborators: Dr. Timothy Wangler, Dr. Jaime Mata Falcón, Martin Wermelinger, Andreas Reusser


Flatt, Robert J., Timothy Wangler, Lex Reiter, Ena Lloret-Fritschi, Fabio Gramazio, Matthias Kohler, Linus Mettler, Falk Wittel, Mathias Bernhard, Benjamin Dillenburger, Jonas Buchli, Jaime Mata Falcón and Walter Kaufmann. 2016. “Digital Fabrication with Concrete:Challenges and Opportunities.” Keynote lecture 8th International RILEM Symposium on Self-Compacting Concrete, Washington,DC, USA, 16-19 May 2016.

Lloret Fritschi, Ena. 2016. “Smart Dynamic Casting A Digital Fabrication Method for Non-Standard Concrete Structures.” Doctoral thesis, ETH Zurich.

Lloret Fritschi, Ena, Lex Reiter, Timothy Wangler, Fabio Gramazio, Matthias Kohler, and Robert J. Flatt. “Smart Dynamic Casting: –Slipforming with Flexible Formwork – Inline Measurement and Control.” Submitted to 2nd Concrete Innovation Conference (CIC),Norway.

Mettler, Linus K., Falk K. Wittel, Robert J. Flatt, and Hans J. Herrmann. 2016. “Evolution of Strength and Failure of SCC during Early Hydration.” Cement and Concrete Research 89 (November): 288–96.doi:10.1016/j.cemconres.2016.09.004.

Reiter, Lex, Timothy Wangler, Nicolas Roussel, and Robert J. Flatt. 2016. “Distinguishing Flocculation and Hydration Effects on the Thixotropy of Cement Pastes.” In 8th International RILEM Symposium on Self-Compacting Concrete, Washington, DC, USA.

Schultheiss, Marc, Timothy P. Wangler, Lex Reiter, and Robert J. Flatt. 2016. “Feedback Control of Smart Dynamic Casting through Formwork Friction Measurements.” In 8th International RILEM Symposium on Self-Compacting Concrete, Washington, DC, USA.

Timothy Wangler, Lex Reiter, Ena Lloret-Fritschi, Norman Hack, Matthias Kohler, Fabio Gramazio, Benjamin Dillenburger, Mathias Bernhard, Jonas Buchli, and Robert J. Flatt. “Hydration Control for Digital Fabrication with Concrete.” Invited presentation at One-Day International Symposium on 3D Printing of Concrete, IIT Madras, Chennai, India, 8 August 2016.

Wangler, Timothy, Ena Lloret, Lex Reiter, Norman Hack, Fabio Gramazio, Matthias Kohler, Mathias Bernhard, et al. 2016. “Digital Concrete: Opportunities and Challenges.” RILEM Technical Letters 1: 9.

Reiter, Lex, Marta Palacios, Timothy Wangler, and Robert J. Flatt. 2015. “Putting Concrete to Sleep and Waking It up with Chemical Admixtures.” Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Superplasticizers and Other Chemical Admixtures in Concrete 302:145–154.

Reiter, Lex, Rene Käßmann, Amir Reza Shahab, Timothy Wangler, and Robert J. Flatt. 2015a. “Strategies to Wake up Sleeping Concrete.” Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement.

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